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It appears that bone and antler tools, found in small numbers, often as fragments, actually constituted a very significant proportion of the tool inventories of Lowlanders. As well, formal stone tools, found in relatively small. Examples of bone and antler tools found in both pre- and post-contact period lower Severn River archaeological sites:a, g-caribou metapodial beamers GlIwB, GkJa , b-antler skinning tool GkJa cbone point GlIv , d-bird bone awl GlIx , e-worked caribou metapodial fragment GkJa , f-caribou metapodial awl GlIv The demonstrated focus on the exploitation of caribou would make bone and antler more common and accessible, on a year-round basis, than lithic resources.
In fact, bone and antler articles constituted an important part of the material culture of prehistoric Lowlanders and may even have rivalled stone as a raw material used in the manufacture of tools.
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Discussion The objectives of this article were manifold and perhaps overly ambitious. First, a number of proxy data sets were summarized that point to significant climate change since the end of the last glacial epoch.
These data are wellknown but are rarely evoked in public discussions which consider current. Rather, thinking quite often revolves around changes that occurred over the last few generations only. Without wishing to infer direct causality, it was important to review the extent of long-term past climate change given modern preoccupations. A second purpose was to attempt to show that, at the Hudson Bay regional level, there has been significant culture change that occurred without any apparent correlation with long-term changes in climate.
One exception does, however, loom prominently and that is the movement of Palaeoeskimo groups into and out of the Barrenlands of southern Nunavut formerly the District of Keewatin. This territorial shift the movement of Palaeoeskimo and the concomitant movement of Amerindian groups has not been fully understood but likely finds some explanation with the effects that climate change had on caribou range changes and movements, and possibly the hunting methods used by these various groups.
The final goal of this article has been to underscore the very marked variation in seasonal weather patterns that groups occupying the Severn River basin experienced every single year. In very practical terms, these patterns presented monumental challenges for survival, possibly greater than any long term climate change documented by pollen or ice cores.
They were apparently met by devising an economic strategy predicated on the exploitation of a central animal resource, caribou, which included long-distance seasonal relocation. As well significant flexibility was built in to their technological systems. Organic materials, many of them bone and antler provided by the focal resource, caribou, were used to manufacture a considerable proportion of the tools required over the course of a year.
Similarly, inventories of chipped stone debitage, easily modified into whatever implement was required for a specific task, were stockpiled at the end of the warm weather season when access to tool stone was about to end.
How would long term climate change be experienced by Hudson Bay Lowlands hunter, gatherers, fishers? Shifts that occurred over the course of several lifetimes may or may not have been perceived. Oral traditions might have evoked slight changes in the onset of certain natural cycles or the distribution of certain animal species. Yet, few individuals would have had the opportunity of personally experiencing these changes since they would have spanned several generations.
Instead, the change in climate taking place within the yearly cycle would have been more profoundly felt. The devised methods of dealing with these seasonal rhythms depended very much on having a flexible technological base and land use strategy. Therein lies the secret of the successful adaptation to one of the harshest regions of world. Ahti, T. Research Report No. Balcom, R. Christianson, pp. Barry, R. Bostock, H. Economic Geology Report No. Douglas, editor. Bryson, R.
Clark, B. Craig, B. Hood, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper Cuffey, Kurt M. Dawson, Kenneth C. Denton, D. Paddy Reid, Occasional Publications No. Dickson, G. Dyke, Arthur S. Ferguson, M. Williamson and F. Giddings, J. Gordon, B. Gore, Al The Future.
Arqueología de La Cuenca Del Titicaca
Hancock, Ronald G. Hanson, H. Arctic, vol. Campbell, Arctic. Honigmann, J. Subarctic, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, no. Houghton, J. Meira Filho, B. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg and K. Summary for Policymakers, Geneva, Switzerland. Irving, W.
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Johnsen, S. Dahl-Jensen, W. Dansgaard and N. Gundestrup, J. Steffensen, H. Clausen, H. Miller, V. Masson-Delmotte, A. Sveinbjörnsdottir and J. Kelsall, J. Kershaw, K. Krebs, C. Boonstra, S. Boutin and A. Kritsch-Armstrong, I. Kroker, S. Manitoba Archaeological Quarterly, vol. Larson, D. Lee, H.
Lee, T. Lister, Kenneth R. Lytwyn, V. MacNeish, R.